Human Resource Development
CIMT 543 Glossary of Terms


Teaching Tools
Resources for Evaluation & Performance
ITE 335 International Development and Technology
CIMT 610 Research in Education
ITE 670 Systematic Instructional Design
HRD Internship
CIMT 543 Production of Instructional Materials
ITE 675 Leadership of HR
ITE 695

Instructional Media and Technology:


CIMT 443/54

Joseph Williams



Acceptable Use Policy (AUP) - An agreement among students, parents/guardians, and school administrators regarding appropriate use of the technology.

Accommodation - The cognitive process of modifying a schema or creating a schemata.

Acetate - A transparent plastic sheet associated with overhead projection.

Advance organizer - An outline, preview, or other such preinstructional cue used top promote retention of verbal material, as proposed by David Ausbel.

Affective Domain - The domain of human learning that involves changes interests, attitudes, and values and the development of appreciation.

Analogous colors - Any two colors that lie next to one another on the color wheel. Contrasted with complementary colors.

Animation - A film technique in which the artist gives motion to still images by creating and juxtaposing a series of pictures with small, incremental changes from one to the next.

Aperture - The lens opening that regulates the amount of light entering the camera.

Arrangement - The pattern or shape into which the elements of a visual display are organized.

Artifact - Student-produced materials such as writings, videos, and multimedia presentations.

Assimilation - The cognitive process by which a learner integrates new infor­mation into an existing schema.

Asynchronous - Not at the same time.

Audiographic teleconference - A tele­conference involving voice plus graphic display. The graphics may be transmitted by a fax machine or elec­tronically by means of slow-scan video or a graphics tablet.

Audio teleconference - A teleconference involving transmission of voices only. The voices are amplified at each end by a speaker system.

Auditory fatigue - The process by which attention to a sound gradually decreases because of the monotony of the sound.

Authentic assessment - Evaluation that is usually performance based and that re­quires students to demonstrate their learning in a natural context.

Author - To create on a computer a unique collection of related information.

Bandwidth - The range of frequencies an electronic communications chan­nel can support without excessive deterioration.

Bar graph - A type of graph in which the height of the bar is the measure of the quantity being represented.

Baud - The switching speed, or number of transitions (voltage or frequency changes) made per second; the speed at which modems translate data. At low speeds, one baud is roughly equivalent to one bit per second.

Behaviorism - A theory that equates learning with changes in observable be­havior; with this theory, there is no speculating about mental events that may mediate learning.

Bit - An acronym for binary digit; the smallest unit of digital information. The bit can be thought of as a 1 or a 0 rep­resenting a circuit on or off respectively.

Branching programming - A format of programmed instruction in which the sequence of presentation of the frames depends on the responses selected by the learner.

Broadcasting Transmission - of signals to many receivers simultaneously via elec­tromagnetic waves.

Browse - To navigate through informa­tion on computer, following items of perso

nal interest by choosing non-se­quential pathways.

Bulletin board - Computer system used as an information source and message posting system for a particular interest group.

Button - An onscreen device used to open applications, select options, and to nav­igate within a hypertext environment.

Byte - The number of bits required to store or represent one character of text (a letter or number); most com­monly, but not always, made up of eight bits in various combinations of Os and is.

Cable television - A television distribution system consisting of a closed circuit, usually wired, network for transmitting signals from an origination point (see brad end) to members of the network. Typically, the origination point receives and retransmits broad­cast programs, adding recorded pro-grains and/or some live originations.

Carrel - A partially enclosed booth that serves as a clearly identifiable enclosure for learning center activities.

Cassette - A self-contained reel-to-reel magnetic tape system with the two reels permanently installed in a rugged plas­tic case.

CCD - See charge-coupled device.

CCTV - See closed-cu-runt television.

CD-ROM (Compact disc read-only memory) - Digitally encoded information permanently recorded on compact disc. Information can be ac­cessed very quickly.

CD-R (Compact disc recordable) - A compact disc on which the user may record information digitally one rime and then access it many times.

CD-RW (Compact disc re-writeable) - A compact disc on which the user may record information digitally many times and access it many times.

Charge-coupled device (CCD) - A de­vice that changes a pattern of different wavelengths into corresponding elec­trical charges.

Chat room - Web or Internet sub-sites where users may converse in real time using their keyboards.

Closed-circuit television (CCTV) - Any system of television that transmits sig­nals through self-contained pathways (such as cable) rather than via broad­casting.

Cognitive domain - The domain of hu­man learning involving intellectual skills, such as assimilation of informa­tion or knowledge.

Cognitive psychology - A branch of psy­chology devoted to the study of how individuals acquire, process, and use in­formation.

Cognitivism - A theory according to which mental processes mediate learning and learning entails the con­struction or reshaping of mental schemata.

Cold storage training - Information or skills taught that may or may not be used in the future.

Compact disc (CD) - A 4.72-inch disc on which a laser has recorded digital in­formation.

Complementary colors - Any two colors that lie directly opposite one another on the color wheel. Contrasted with analogous colors.

Compressed video - Video images that have been processed to remove redun­dant information, thereby reducing the amount of bandwidth required to transmit them. Because only changes in the image are transmitted, move­ments appear jerky compared with full-motion video.

Computer-assisted instruction (CM) - Instruction delivered directly to learn­ers by allowing them to interact with lessons programmed into the com­puter system.

Computer classroom - A regular class­room furnished with one or more computers.

Computer hypermedia - A computer hardware and software system that al­lows the composition and display of nonsequential documents that may in­clude text, audio, and visual informa­tion and in which related information may be linked into webs by author or user.

Computer laboratory - A room set apart from regular classrooms and furnished with multiple computers, usually es­tablished in schools that do not have computers in individual classrooms.

Computer-managed instruction (CMI) - The use of a computer system to man­age information about learner per­formance and learning resources and to then prescribe and control individ­ual lessons.

Computer multimedia - A computer hardware and software system for the composition and display of presenta­tions that incorporate text, audio, and still and motion images.

Computer network - An electronic con­necting system that allows physically dispersed computers to share software, data, and peripheral devices.

Computer platform - Different types of computer operating systems, such as Mac OS, Unix, or Windows.

Constructivism - A theory that considers the engagement of students in mean­ingful experiences as the essence of learning.

Cooperative game - A game in which the attainment of the goal requires coop­eration rather than competition among the players.

Cooperative learning - An instructional configuration involving small groups of learners working together on learn­ing tasks rather than competing as individuals.

Copy board - A device that makes a pa­per copy of what is written on a type of electronic whiteboard.

Copyright - Regulations that describe the manner in which an original work can be used and copied. Copyright laws regulate the manner in which authors or artists can be reimbursed for their creative work.

Courseware - Lessons delivered via com­puter, consisting of content conveyed according to an instructional design controlled by programmed software.

Criterion - As part of a performance ob­jective, the standard by which accept­able performance is judged; may include a time limit, accuracy tolerance, proportion of correct responses re­quired, and/or qualitative standards.

Cross-training - A method to train an in­dividual worker to do several jobs and several workers to do the same job.

Cyberspace - Informal name for the global computer network.

Database - A collection of related infor­mation organized for quick access to specific items of information.

Debriefing - Discussion conducted among simulation or game partici­pants after play to elucidate what they have learned.

Desktop publishing - Computer appli­cations that allow a personal computer to generate typeset-quality text and graphics.

Desktop video - Video production using a personal computer and low-cost video equipment.

Desktop video conferencing Real-time person-to-person or group interaction over a network using computers in­corporating visual and auditory ex­change.

Dichroic mirror - A mirror coated so that only one color of the spectrum is re­flected. In a video camera, three dichroic mirrors direct the three primary colors to three respective video tubes.

Digital - Representation or storage of in­formation by combinations of numbers (a series of 0s and 1s).

Digital camera - Camera that uses a charge-coupled device as a recording medium in place of film, recording the image digitally.

Digital image - An image that is not stored on film or processed like film, but rather stored on disk or on a com­puter using digital numbers to repre­sent the image.

Digital recording - A recording process in which analog information is encoded in binary form before being saved onto the recording medium.

Digital video - Video recording technol­ogy that stores video images as strings of binary numbers.

Digital videodisc (DVD) - A compact disc format for displaying motion video, often in the form of movies for home entertainment.

Digital video editing - Taking apart and putting back together video segments using a computer and associated soft­ware.

Diorama - A static display employing a flat background and three-dimensional foreground to achieve a lifelike effect.

Directional - A visual device, such as an arrow, used to direct viewers atten­tion in a given direction or to a spe­cific location.

Discovery method - A teaching strategy that proceeds as follows: immersion in a real or contrived problem situation, development of hypotheses, resting of hypotheses, and arrival at conclusion (the main point).

Distance learning/education - Any in­structional situation in which learners are separated in time or space from the point of origination, characterized by limited access to the teacher and other learners.

Distance site - A classroom connected re­motely via a telecommunications sys­tem to a site where a teacher is present. See origination classroom.

Division of labor - In economics, the re­organization of a job so that some tasks are performed by one person or system and other tasks are performed by oth­ers for purposes of increased efficiency or effectiveness.

Documentary - A video program that deals with fact, not fiction or fictional­ized versions of fact.

Document camera - A video camera mounted on a copy stand to show doc­uments, pictures, graphics, and real ob­jects to groups.

Download - To transfer programs and/ or data files from a computer to an­other device or computer; to retrieve something from a network.

DYD - See digital videodisc.

E-learning (electronic learning) - In­ternet-based learning. Components can include content delivery in mul­tiple formats, management of the learning experience, and a net­worked community of learners, con­tent developers, and experts. E-learning provides faster learning at reduced costs, increased access to learning materials, and clear ac­countability for all participants in the learning process.

Electronic mail (e-mail) - Transmission of private messages over a computer network; users can send mail to a sin­gle recipient or broadcast it to multi­ple users on the system.

Electrostatic film (xerography) - A method of making overhead trans­parencies. Similar to the thermal process, this process requires specially treated film that is electrically charged and light sensitive.

Enactive experience - Direct, firsthand experience.

Entry tests - Assessments, both formal and informal, to determine if students possess desired identified prerequisites.

Exhibit - A display incorporating various media formats (e.g., realia, still pictures, models, graphics) into an integral whole intended for instructional purposes.

Expert system - A computer program, as­sembled by a ream of content experts and programmers that teaches learn­ers how to solve complex tasks by ap­plying the appropriate knowledge from the content area.

Extranet - A network of intranets. See in­tranet.

Extrinsic motivator - Factor unrelated to a task that stimulates someone to pur­sue the task. Contrasted with intrinsic motivator

Fair use - Basic criteria by which an edu­cator may determine if it is appropriate to use copyrighted materials in a class­room setting.

Feedback - In electronics, the regenera­tion of sound caused by a systems mi­crophonic pickup of output from its own speakers, causing a ringing sound or squeal. In communication, signals sent from the destination back to the source that provides information about the reception of the original message.

Fiber optics - A transmission medium us­ing spun silicon shaped into threads as thin as human hair. It transmits more signals with higher quality than can metal cables.

Field trip - An excursion outside the class­room to study real processes, people, and objects.

Figure-ground contrast - The visual principle stating that dark figures show up best on light backgrounds and light figures show up best on dark back­grounds.

File server - In local area networks, a sta­tion dedicated to providing file and mass data storage services to the other stations on the network.

Filmstrip - A roll of 35mm film contain­ing a series of related still pictures in­tended for showing one at a time in sequence.

Firewall - Intranet software that prevents external users from accessing a propri­etary network, while allowing internal users access to external networks.

Flip chart - A pad of large paper fastened together at the top and mounted on an easel.

Focal length - The distance from the focal point of a lens to a cameras film plane when the lens is focused at infinity.

Frame game - Any game that lends its structure to a variety of subject matter.

Fresnel lens - A flat glass or acrylic lens in with the curvature of a normal lens surface is collapsed into an almost flat plane, resulting in concentric circle forms impressed or engraved on the lens surface. Because of its low cost, lightweight, and compactness, it is of­ten used for the condenser lens in over­head projectors and in studio lights.

f/stop - Term used in measuring a cam­eras lens opening. Larger f-numbers indicate smaller openings.

Game - An activity in which participants follow prescribed rules that differ from those of reality as they strive to attain a challenging goal.

Gateway - A computer that interconnects and makes translations between two different types of networks. Also called a portal.

Gb - See gigabyte.

Geosynchronous satellite - A communi­cations satellite orbiting at a predeter­mined distance and traveling at such a speed that it appears to hover steadily over the same spot on earth.

Gigabyte (Gb) - Approximately one mil­lion bytes or 1,000 megabytes.

Goal - A desired instructional outcome that is broad in scope and general with regard to criteria and performance in­dicators.

Graphics - Two-dimensional, non-photo­graphic materials designed to commu­nicate a specific message to the viewer.

Hard disk - Metal disk covered with a magnetic recording material; the per­manent storage device for a computer.

Hard technology - The hardware, such as television, computers, and satellites, used as tools to provide instruction. Contrasted with soft technology.

Hardware - The mechanical and elec­tronic components that make up a computer; the physical equipment that makes up a computer system, and, by extension, the term that refers to any audiovisual equipment.

Head end - The origination point of a ca­ble television system.

Hearing - A physiological process in which sound waves entering the outer ear are transmitted to the eardrum, converted into mechanical vibrations in the mid-die ear, and changed in the inner ear to nerve impulses that travel to the brain.

Hypermedia - Software based on utilizing a hypertext environment for nonse­quential access to data. See also com­puter hypermedia.

Hypertext - A method of encoding data that enables the user to access contin­ually a large information base whenever additional information on a subject is needed.

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) - The programming language that de­fines the format of a World Wide Web page. This relatively simple code can be purchased as software to streamline the creation of Web pages.

Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) - The Web protocol that ensures compatibility before transferring information.

Iconic - Any referent that resembles the thing it represents.

Iconic representation - Pertaining to an image that resembles a real object.

Information superhighway - Popular name given to the concept of an inter­national information network of ex­tremely high carrying capacity. Also refers specifically to the fiber-optic net­work being constructed in North America.

In-house video - Video produced within ones own school or company.

Instruction - Deliberate arrangement of experience(s) to help learners achieve a desirable change in performance; the management of learning, which in ed­ucation and training is primarily the function of the instructor.

Instructional development - The process of analyzing needs, determining what content must be mastered, establishing educational goals, designing materials to help reach the objectives, and trying out and revising the program according to learner achievement.

Instructional module - A freestanding instructional unit, usually used for in­dependent study. Typical components are rationale, objective, pretest, learn­ing activities, self-test, and posttest.

Instructional television (ITV) - Any planned use of video programs to meet specific instructional goals regardless of the source of the programs (including commercial broadcasts) or the setting in which they are used (including busi­ness and industry training).

Instructional Television Fixed Service (ITFS) - A portion of the microwave frequency spectrum (25002690MHz) reserved by law in the United States for educational use.

Integrated learning system (ILS) - A set of interrelated computer-based lessons organized to match the curriculum of a school or training agency.

Intelligent agent - A computer program or portion of a program that is used to assist the user to help organize infor­mation and facilitate ease of use.

Interactive media - Media formats that al­low or require some level of physical ac­tivity from the user, which in some ways alters the sequence of presentation.

Interactive video - Computer-controlled video playback incorporating some method for users to control the se­quence of presentation, typically by re­sponding to multiple-choice questions.

Internet - A worldwide system for linking smaller computer networks together, based on a packet system of informa­tion transfer and using a common set of communication standards.

Internet service provider (ISP) - An organiza­tion that provides access to the Internet.

Interpersonal domain - The domain of learning that involves interaction among people and the ability to relate effectively with others.

Intranet - Internal network for a com­pany or school that cannot be accessed by external users.

Intrinsic motivator - Factor directly re­lated to a task that stimulates someone to pursue the task. Contrasted with ex­trinsic motivator.

Just-in-time training - Instruction pro­vided when the worker needs it, often at the workstation and not in a classroom.

Kb - See kilobyte.

Keystone effect - The distortion (usually creating a wide top and narrow bot­tom) of a projected image caused when the projector is not aligned at right an­gles to the screen.

Kilobyte (Kb or K) - Approximately 1,000 bytes; more precisely, 1,024 bytes.

Lab pack - Provides a number of simul­taneous uses of computer software by licensing agreement.

LCD - See liquid crystal display.

Learning - A general term for a relatively lasting change in capability caused by experience; also, the process by which such change is brought about. See also behaviorism and cognitivism for differ­ent interpretations of learning.

Learning center - A self-contained envi­ronment designed to promote individ­ual or small-group learning around a specific task.

Learning style - A cluster of psychologi­cal traits that determine how a person perceives, interacts with, and responds emotionally to learning environments.

Linear programming - A format of pro­grammed instruction in which the frames are arranged in a fixed, linear sequence.

Link - An association between two (or more) nonsequential concepts. In hy­permedia, a direct connection between two asynchronous items of data.

Liquid crystal display (LCD) - A data display using a liquid crystal material encased between two transparent sheets. Liquid crystals have the prop­erties of a liquid and a solid; a network of electrodes and polarizing filter cre­ates a grid of pixels that open and close to pass or block light.

Listening - A psychological process that begins with someones awareness of and attention to sounds or speech pat­terns, proceeds through identification and recognition of specific auditory sig­nals, and ends in comprehension.

Listserv - A program that automatically sorts and distributes electronic mes­sages over a computer network.

Local area network (LAN) - A local sys­tem (typically within a building) con­necting computers and peripheral devices into a network; may give access to external networks.

Low-cost learning technology - An ap­proach to formal education featuring systematic selection and implementa­tion of a variety of managerial, instruc­tional, motivational, and resource-utilization strategies to increase student learning outcomes while decreasing or maintaining recurrent educational costs.

Manipulative - Object that can be viewed and handled in a learning setting.

Mb - See megabyte.

Media format - The physical form in which a message is incorporated and displayed. Examples include flip charts, photographic prints and slides, audio-and videotape, and computer multi­media.

Medium - A means of communication. Derived from the Latin medium (be­tween), the term refers to anything that carries information between a source and a receiver. Plural: media.

Megabyte (Mb or M) - Basic unit of measurement of mass storage, equal to 1,048,576 bytes, or 1,024 kilobytes.

Method - A procedure of instruction se­lected to help learners achieve their ob­jective or to internalize a message.

Microwave transmission - A television distribution system using the ultra-high and super-high frequency ranges (200-13mhz). Includes the ITF in the United States

Mock up representation - It may be smaller or larger or as the same size as the thing represented of a complex device or process.

Model - A three-dimensional representa­tion of a real object; it may be larger, smaller, or the same size as the thing represented.

Motivation - An internal state that leads people to choose to pursue certain goals and experiences.

Motor skill domain - The category of human learning that involves athletic, manual, and other physical action skills.

MP3 (MPEG Audio Layer 3) - A format for compression of audio files to shrink them into more manageable size, espe­cially when using the Internet.

Multi-image presentation - Any visual presentation showing several images simultaneously, often using multiple screens.

Multimedia Sequential or simultaneous use of a variety of media formats in a given presentation or self-study pro­gram. See also computer multimedia.

Multimedia kit - A collection of teach­ing-learning materials involving more than one type of medium and organ­ized around a single topic.

Multipurpose board - A board with a smooth white plastic surface used with special marking pens rather than chalk. The boards usually have a steel back­ing and can be used as a magnetic board for display of visuals; may also be used as a screen for projected visuals.

Narrowband - A telecommunications channel that carries lower frequency signals; includes telephone frequencies of about 3,000 Hz and radio sub-carrier signals of about 15,000 Hz.

Navigate - To move about at will within a hypermedia environment by means of buttons and other onscreen devices.

Network - A communication system link­ing two or more computers.

Newsgroup - On computer networks, a discussion group created by allowing users to post messages and read mes­sages among themselves.

Non-projected visual - Any visual teach­ing aid that does not require equipment to view or manipulate.

Objective - A statement of the new capa­bility that is intended to result from Instruction.

Optical disc - A type of disc storage de­vice that records and reproduces digi­tal information using a laser beam, e.g., CD and DVD.

Optical spacing - Spacing typographical elements so that they appeal evenly sep­arated, regardless of their true meas­ured distance.

Oral history - Historical documentation of a time, place, or event by means of recording the spoken recollections of participants in those events.

Origination classroom - Site where teacher is located when providing dis­tance learning via a telecommunica­tions system. See distance site.

Overhead projection - Projection by means of a device that produces an im­age on a screen by transmitting light through transparent acetate or a simi­lar medium on the stage of the projec­tor. The lens and mirror arrangement in an elevated housing creates a bright projected image over the head or shoul­der of the operator.

Overlay - One or more additional trans­parent sheets with lettering or other in­formation that can be placed over a base transparency.

Performance objective - A statement of the new capability the learner should possess at the completion of instruc­tion. A well-stated objective names the intended audience, then specifies (1) the performance or capability to be learned, (2) the conditions under which the performance is to be demon­strated, and (3) the criterion or stan­dard of acceptable performance.

Performance support system - A variety of online aids both to improve current job performance and to plan future training needs.

Persistence of vision - The psycho-physi­ological phenomenon that occurs when an image falls on the retina of the eye and is conveyed to the brain via the optic nerve. The brain continues to see the image for a fraction of a sec­ond after the image is cut off.

Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) - A process technology for man­aging instruction that puts reinforce­ment theory into action as the overall framework for a whole course. Students work individually at their own pace us­ing a variety of instructional materials. The materials are arranged in sequen­tial order, and the student must show mastery of each unit before moving on to the next.

Photo CD - A collection of digitized pho­tographs stored on a CD-ROM.

Portal - See gateway.

Portfolio - An integrated collection of student work including a variety of media to demonstrate progress and accomplishments.

Practice - Learner participation that in­creases the probability of learning.

Pre-instructional strategies - See ad­vance organizer.

Prerequisites - Competencies that learn­ers must possess to benefit from instruction.

Presentation graphics software - Com­puter software to create attractive graphic displays without specialized production skills.

Problem-based instruction - High fidelity, learner-centered, inquiry-based instruction based on real situations.

Programmed instruction - A method of presenting instructional material printed in small bits or frames, each of which includes an item of information (prompt), a sentence to be completed or a question to be answered (response), and the correct answer (reinforcement).

Programmed teaching - A process tech­nology for learning involving scripted presentations, small-group instruction, unison responding by learners, cues given by the teacher, rapid pac­ing, and reinforcement and correction procedures.

Programmed tutoring - A one-to-one process technology in which the deci­sions to be made by the tutor are pro­grammed in advance by means of carefully structured printed instruc­tions.

Projected visuals - Media formats in which still images are projected onto a screen.

Proximity - Visual principles in which viewers assume that items placed close together are related, and those placed farther apart are unrelated.

RAM - See random access memory.

Random access memory (RAM) - The flexible part of computer memory. The particular program or set of data being manipulated by the user is temporarily stored in RAM, then erased to snake way for the next program.

Read-only memory (ROM) - Control instructions that have been wired permanently into the memory of a computer. Usually stores instructions that the computer will need constantly. Such as the programming language(s) and internal monitoring functions.

Real object - Not a model or simulation but an example of an actual object used in instruction.

Referent - That which is referred to.

Reform - See restructuring.

Removable-storage device - High-capacity portable computer storage disks such as SyQuest, Zip®, and Jaz®.

Restructuring - Approaches to change the framework of education incorpo­rating the redesign of programs, staffing, and even facilities. Also re­ferred to as reform.

Role-play - A simulation in which the dominant feature is relatively open-ended interaction among people.

ROM - See read-only memory

Rule of thirds - A principle of photo­graphic and graphic composition in which an area is divided into thirds both vertically and horizontally and the cen­ters of interest are located near the in­tersections of the lines.

Sans serif - Typeface style with no orna­mentation on either ascenders or de­scenders, such as Helvetica.

Scanner - A computer device that con­verts an image on a piece of paper into an electronic form that can be stored in a computer file.

Scenario - Literally, a written description of the plot of a play. In simulation and game design, it refers to a description of the setting and events to be repre­sented in a simulation.

Schema - Mental structure by which in­dividuals organize their perceptions of the environment. Plural: schemata.

Script - A set of user-defined commands used to create or navigate within a hy­pertext environment.

Search engine - A program that identifies Internet sites that contain user-identified keywords or phrases.

Showmanship - Techniques that an in­structor can use to direct and hold at­tention during presentations.

Shutter - The mechanical device that controls the length of time light en­ters the camera and reaches the film plane.

Simulation - An abstraction or simplifi­cation of some real-life situation or process.

Simulation game - An instructional for­mat that combines the attributes of simulation (role playing, model of reality) with the attributes of a game (striving toward a goal, specific rules).

Simulator - A device that represents a real physical system in a scaled-down form; it allows users to experience the salient aspects of the real-life process.

Site license - Provides unlimited use of software at specified locations by licensing agreement.

Slide - A small-format (e.g., 35mm) pho­tographic transparency individually mounted flat one-at-a-time projection.

Slow motion - A film technique that ex­pands time by photographing rapid events at high speeds (many exposures per second) and then projecting the film at normal speed.

Social psychology - The study of the ef­fects of the social organization of the classroom on learning.

Soft technology - Techniques and meth­ods that form psychological and social frameworks for learning, as opposed to the hardware used to deliver instruc­tion; an example is Kellers Personal­ized System of Instruction.

Software - Computer program control instructions and accompanying docu­mentation; stored on disks or tapes when not being used in the computer. By extension, the term refers to any au­diovisual materials.

Spreadsheet - Computer software that al­lows users to manipulate data and gen­erate reports and charts.

Star Schools - A program initiated in the United States by the Department of Education to promote instructional networks providing distance education for elementary and secondary schools.

Storyboarding - An audiovisual produc­tion and planning technique in which sketches of the proposed visuals and verbal messages are put on individual cards or into a computer program; the items are then arranged into the de­sired sequence on a display surface.

Streaming video - A video file down­loaded from the Internet that starts playing before it is completely down­loaded.

Study print - A photographic enlarge­ment printed in a durable form for in­dividual or group examination.

Symbolic representation - Pertaining to use of letters, numbers, and words to present information.

Synchronous - At the same time.

Tb - See terabyte.

Technology - (1) A process of devising re­liable and repeatable solutions to tasks. (2) The hardware and software (i.e., the product) that result from the ap­plication of technological processes. (3) A mix of process and product used in instances where the context refers to the combination of technological processes and resultant products or where the process is inseparable from the product.

Technology for learning - An applica­tion of technology to aid the learning process; may refer to either hard technologies (communications media) or soft technologies (processes or procedures that follow a technological approach).

Telecommunications - A means for com­municating over a distance; specifically, any arrangement for transmitting voice and data in the form of coded signals through an electronic medium.

Telecommuting - A method allowing people to commute to work from their homes through computers and telecommunications technology.

Teleconference - A communications configuration using electronic trans­mission technologies (audio and/or video) to hold live meetings among ge­ographically disi5ersed people.

Teleconference audio - A live, two-way voice conversation among groups at different locations via telephone lines or satellites.

Teleconference video - A live, two-way communications arrangement con­necting groups at different locations via telephone lines or satellites; voice is transmitted both ways, and video dis­tribution may be either one-way or two-way.

Tele-lecture - An instructional technique in which an individual, typically a con­tent specialist or well-known authority, addresses a group listening by means of a telephone amplifier. The listeners may ask questions of the resource per­son, with the entire group able to hear the response.

Teletraining - The process of using tele­conferences for instructional purposes.

Television - The system of transmitting moving pictures and sound electroni­cally, either through the air or through wires, and displaying the images on a cathode-ray tube.

Tele-work - A method in which employ­ees work away from the office using telecommunications and computers to exchange information with the work­site.

Template - A pattern used as a guide in making accurate replications of something. In computers, a ready-to-use permanent document set up with a ba­sic layout, commands, and formulas.

Terabyte (Tb) - Approximately one million megabytes.

Thumb spot - A mark on a slide to assist in placing it correctly in the slide tray.

Time lapse - A video technique that com­presses the time that it takes for an event to occur. A long process is pho­tographed frame-by-frame, at intervals, and then projected at normal speed.

Total Quality Management (TQM) - Efficiency engineering system that measures to a high degree of accuracy the business impact of all expenditures.

Transparency - The large-format (typically by 10 inches) film used with the overhead projector.

Two-by-six rule - A general rule of thumb for determining screen size: no viewer should be seated closer to the screen than two screen widths or far­ther away than six screen widths.

Uniform resource locator (URL) - The address for an Internet site or World Wide Web page containing the proto­col type, the domain, the directory, and the name of the site or page.

Upload - To send a tile from a computer system to a network.

Verbalism - A term to describe the par­roting of words without demonstrat­ing understanding.

Video - The storage of visuals and their display on a television-type screen.

Videocassette recorder (VCR) - A de­vice that records and plays back video images and sound on magnetic tape stored in a cassette.

Video teleconference - A teleconference involving a television -type picture as well as voice transmission. The video image may be freeze-frame or still ­motion video.

Viewfinder - Viewing device on a camera that lets you see approximately what the film will record.

Virtual field trip - A type of field trip in which the students do not leave the classroom setting, instead they use me­dia to provide the experience of be­ing there.

Virtual reality - A computer-controlled environment in which users experience multi-sensory immersion and interact with certain phenomena as they would in the physical world.

Virtual time - Not in real time, not si­multaneous.

Visual - Any reaching aid whose primary mode of apprehension is optical.

Visual literacy - The learned ability to in­terpret visual messages accurately and to create such messages.

Web - See World Wide Web.

WebQuest - A set of steps that provide guidance when seeking information about a specific topic.

Website - A collection of web pages avail­able on the Internet that provide in­formation about products, services, events, materials, etc.

Wide area network (WAN) - A commu­nications network that covers a large ge­ographic area, such as a state or country.

World Wide Web (the Web) - A graphi­cal environment on computer net­works that allows you to access, view, and maintain documents that can in­clude text, data, sound, and video.