Running Head: Music Technology 2000
Proficiency #2: Music Technology in 2000
Joseph I. Williams
For partial fulfillment of requirements in CIMT 543
April 17, 2003
Music Technology in 2000
Analysis of Learners
It is important to establish a match between the characteristics of the learner and the content of the methods, materials, and media used if the instructional media and technology are to be used effectively (Heinich, et.al, 1999). According to Heinich essential factors for analysis that are critical for making the appropriate selections of methods and materials for the learners benefit include:
Ø General characteristics include descriptors such as age, grade level, job or position, cultural and socioeconomic factors.
Ø Specific entry competencies refer to knowledge and skills that learners either possess or lack: prerequisite skills, target skills, and attitudes.
Ø Learning styles refer to the spectrum of psychological traits that affect how learners perceive and respond to different stimuli, such as anxiety, aptitude, visual or auditory preference and motivation.
The advent of Napster has revolutionized the way music is heard and distributed as well as sparking a heated debate on artists' rights and consumer behavior. Also examined will be Rock and Roll marketing in the Year 2000 with the creation of massively integrated campaigns for major artists such as Sting, Christina Aguilera, and N'SYNC. Students will discuss the effect of technological developments on music and the music Industry. Students will also discuss copyright issues and the effect of Internet music resources on the music industry.
Selected Methods, Media and Materials
To adequately present information to elicit classroom discussions on the effect of technological developments on music and the music industry the following items will be necessary:
Ø VHS VCR Player
Ø VH1 Behind the Music 2000, beginning with commentary by Frank Lang, through end of segment
Ø Web-based lesson materials
Ø Other Internet resources as referenced in the lesson
Ø Selected recordings of various styles of music, such as current mainstream popular music familiar to students, classical, jazz, country, new age, etc.
Utilization of Media and Materials/ Required Learner Participation
1. Play selections of popular music as students enter the classroom.
2. Let music continue to play after students are seated. As a song begins to play, lead them in a discussion about their resources for obtaining the music. If they are familiar with the song or artist, where did they hear of them first? Was it on the radio, through reading, from friends, at the record store, on the Internet? If they were not familiar with the music they hear, where would they go to find out more information about the song or the artist?
3. Guide students in a brief overview of technological developments in the recording industry and how they have affected the way music has made its way into homes and is marketed. Ask students how they think the advent of the small cassette tape in the 1960's impacted the music market (music was more portable, tape players were in cars and "boom boxes", people could hear what they wanted when they wanted, recordings became more affordable, music could reach wider audiences, people had the ability to easily copy music, etc.).
Use the following as needed for the first three lesson procedures:
As records became more and more important in the marketplace, retail sales moved from specialty stores to department stores, where only the fastest-selling items were offered. Record shops offering the widest selection are found only in larger cities; music lovers who live far from such centers depend largely on the mail-order firms and record clubs that have sprung up since the early LP era. In the USA both RCA Victor and Columbia (now BMG and Sony) maintain clubs that send records to members on a regular schedule, even licensing recordings of other labels for sale. The Musical Heritage Society has been the most successful club in the USA since 1965. Concert Hall, which began in the USA in 1946, operated clubs throughout Europe and Japan for many years.
THE RECORDING INDUSTRY AFTER 1948. Each technological development in recording has resulted in increased competition in the marketplace and the enlargement of the recorded repertory. Before 1948 both the recording of masters and the manufacture of records required such skill that a few companies dominated the marketplace. In the LP era many more firms were able to make master recordings on tape and obtain pressings from factories owned by the major companies. In the digital era master recordings of the highest quality can be made with much greater ease and pressed at any commercial disc manufacturing facility (Groves Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2001).
4. Show Behind the Music 2000, beginning with commentary by Frank Lang, through end of segment.
5. Lead students in a discussion about the diversity of music and music mediums currently available. What are the sources music listeners can use to find music, new and old? Ask students to indicate through a show of hands if they have used the Internet to find or obtain music. How useful is the Internet in finding "all" types of music? Ask them to comment on the ease of use and convenience.
The following online resources will be helpful for use with the remainder of this lesson:
Ø The Recording Industry Association of America at www.riaa.org, specifically: Ask the RIAA at www.riaa.org/Ask_the_RIAA_QA.cfm#3: questions about the Recording Industry Association of America, their stand on MP3 technology and use, starting your own Internet radio station, and much more
Ø Q&A about the RIAA/Napster lawsuit at www.riaa.com/Napster.cfm: thorough explanation of the reasons behind the lawsuit, copyright law information, quotes from artists, RIAA's approach to music on the Internet, consumer's rights, etc.
Ø Napster at www.napster.com, specifically: News articles are available through the Napster site dating back to November 1999 by clicking on "Press Room". An article dated November 1, 1999 titled "Napster: Music is For Sharing" can be found in the archives and is about Napster's beginnings and "good intentions"
Ø The US Copyright Office, The Library of Congress, at http://lcweb.loc.gov/copyright/
6. Using the resources above as needed, provide students with further information about copyright issues, the RIAA's viewpoint, Napster, etc., and lead them in further discussion about the Napster company and Web site, Napster.com and other similar web sites. What are the reasons behind the RIAA's lawsuit? Ask students to suggest reasons why Napster was found guilty of copyright infringement, and why some might not consider them guilty. What are the recording artists' concerns?
7. Lead students in a discussion of the negative effects of Web sites such as Napster on the music industry, the music, and the artists. Why is downloading music for free a problem for recording artists and the music industry? When cassette tapes were first available, was there similar concern that people would make recordings without paying for the music? Some people feel that sites offering music for free download are "sticking it to the labels", or hurting the finances of the large record companies. Do the students think this is true? Who else might be "hurt" along with the record companies (artists, consumers)? Do these sites inhibit record sales, or increase them? Could they prevent artists from creating new music because of financial loss, lack of control over their music, etc.?
8. Ask students to comment on the possible positive aspects of sites such as Napster, and music on the Internet in general. How could the Internet be a good promotional tool for recording artists to gain exposure for their music? Is a balance between using the Internet for music sharing and other activities, and not breaking copyright law, possible? What could be done to achieve that balance?
9. Lead students in a discussion about what the future may hold for the music industry and the consumers. What role could the Internet play, and what other technologies might be on the horizon? Historically, what seems to be the most likely "next step"?
Evaluate and Revise
To assess the effectiveness of the content and delivery of the instruction of this program the Kirkpatrick Model will be used as the guiding framework. The Kirkpatrick Model calls for distinct levels of assessment. There are trade-offs and requirements for each level. For example, as the levels increase, expense and scope increase. A level one assessment will be used for this initiative because this program does not have enough resources to attempt evaluation at the higher levels. The goal at this level is to measure participants' reaction to the delivery and material presented. This common form of evaluation usually occurs immediately following the program.
A short evaluation form is typically used. It may be as short as a few questions; rarely does it run longer than one page. Kirkpatrick recommended that the Level 1 evaluation be anonymous and easily tabulated. This is usually accomplished with a rating scale such as score from 1 to 5, with 1 being lowest satisfaction and 5 being highest satisfaction.
Kirkpatrick also recommended that Level 1 evaluation invite participants to add their own comments. Such qualitative statements are difficult to analyze, but they can display trends that program directors will find helpful.
The US Copyright Office, The Library of Congress. (2003). Retrieved April 17, 2003. Online: http://lcweb.loc.gov/copyright/
VH1. (2000). Behind the music 2000. VH1.
The Recording Industry Association of America. (2003). Audio technologies. Retrieved April 17, 2003. Online: www.riaa.org
Grove, G. (2001). Groves Dictionary of Music and Musicians. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Heinich, Robert, et.al. (1999). Instructional Media and Technologies for Learning. 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Napster. (1999). Music is for sharing. Retrieved April 17, 2003. Online: www.napster.com