To become skilled in todays classrooms it is crucial to know when to use a wide range of instructional strategies and passive and interactive media. Heinich, R., Molenda, M., Russell, D. J., & Smaldino, E. S., (2002) stated to use media and technologies effectively a systematic plan for thier use is necessary. They suggest utilizing the ASSURE model as a guide, which identifies six major steps in an instructional planning process.
The Assure Model is:
Ø A procedural guide for planning and delivering instruction that integrates technology and media into the teaching process.
Ø A systematic approach to writing lesson plans.
Ø A plan used to help teachers organize instructional procedures.
Ø A plan used to help teachers do an authentic assessment of student learning.
Ø A model that can be used by all presenters.
This is a description of the class as a whole. This includes such information as the number of students, grade or age level, gender, socioeconomic factors, exceptionalities, and cultural/ethnic/or other types of diversity.
This is a description of the types of knowledge expected of the learners. Ask questions such as: Do the learners have the knowledge base required to enter the lesson? Do the learners have the entry competencies and technical vocabulary for this lesson? Have the learners already mastered the skills you are planning to teach? Do the learners have biases or misconceptions about the subject?
This is a description of the learning stylistic preferences of the individual members of the class. First of all the instructor will want to find the learners perceptual preferences and strengths. The main choices are auditory, visual, and tactile/kinesthetic. Slower learners tend to prefer kinesthetic experiences. The instructor will then determine the information processing habits of the learners. This category includes a broad range of variables related to how individuals tend to approach the cognitive processing of information. Finally the instructor will determine the motivational and physiological factors of the learners. When it comes to motivational factors the instructor needs to consider things such as anxiety, degree of structure, achievement motivation, social motivation, cautiousness, and competitiveness. The most prominent influences in physiological factors are sexual differences, health, and environmental conditions.
Statements describing what the learner will do as a result of instruction. Things to keep in mind as you write your objectives are:
Ø Focus on the learner, not the teacher
Ø Use behaviors that reflect real world concerns
Ø Objectives are descriptions of the learning outcomes and are written using the ABCD format.
Who is the audience? Specifies the learner(s) for whom the objective is intended.
What do you want them to do? The behavior or capability needs to be demonstrated as learner performance, an observable, measurable behavior, or a real-world skill. Use an action verb from the helpful verbs list if you have difficulty doing this.
Under what circumstances or conditions are the learners to demonstrate the skill being taught? Be sure to include equipment, tools, aids, or references the learner may or may not use, and/or special environmental conditions in which the learner has to perform.
How well do you want them to demonstrate their mastery? Degree to which the new skill must be mastered or the criterion for acceptable performance (include time limit, range of accuracy, proportion of correct responses required, and/or qualitative standards.)
Examples of Objective Statements:
The Drama I class will be able to identify and draw stage directions using pencils and rulers with 100% accuracy. (Or) The kindergarten class will identify the colors, red, green, and blue using blocks 9 out of 10 tries. (Or) The Tenth grade English class will identify and discuss the effects of symbolism in the short story "Young Goodman Brown" using their text, Paper, and Pen in one hour.
Use as many objective statements needed in order to meet the different objectives for the lesson. Use the following questions to assess objectives.
Does the objective allow you to do the following with your lesson?
1. Identify what the expectations are for the learner
2. Identify the necessary requirements for the learning environment
3. Assess learning
4. Determine needs for appropriate media or materials
How would you classify your objective? Is the learning outcome primarily:
3. Psychomotor / Motor Skill?
Select, modify, design Methods, Media, & Materials
This is the step where the Instructor will build a bridge between the audience and the objectives. You need to decide what method you will primarily use: a lecture, group work, a field trip, etc. What media you will use: photos, multimedia, video, a computer? Are you using store bought materials, getting an outside resource to provide materials, modifying something you already have, or making something from scratch?
Ø Media should be selected on the basis of student need.
Ø We must consider the total learning situation.
Ø Should follow learning objectives.
Ø Must be appropriate for the teaching format.
Ø Should be consistent with the students' capabilities and learning styles.
Ø Should be chosen objectively.
Ø Should be selected in order to best meet the learning outcomes.
Ø No single medium is the total solution.
Ø Does it match the curriculum?
Ø Is it accurate and current?
Ø Does it contain clear and concise language?
Ø Will it motivate and maintain interest?
Ø Does it provide for learner participation?
Ø Is it of good technical quality?
Ø Is there evidence of its effectiveness (e.g., field-test results)?
Ø Is it free from objectionable bias and advertising
Ø Is a user guide or other documentation included?
Utilize Methods, Media, & Materials
Plan of how you are going to implement your media and materials. For each type of media and/or materials listed under Select, modify, and design describe in detail how you are going to implement them into your lesson to help your learners meet the lesson's objective. Please write in full sentences; do this for each item.
In order to utilize materials correctly there are several steps to creating good student-centered instruction.
1. Preview the material- Never use anything in class you havent thoroughly checked out.
2. Prepare the material- Make sure you have everything you need and that it all works.
3. Prepare the environment- Set up the classroom so that whatever youre doing will work in the space you have.
4. Prepare the learners- Give the students an overview, explain how they can take this information and use it and how they will be evaluated up front.
5. Provide the learning experience- Teaching is simply high theatre. Showmanship is part of the facilitators job. Teaching and learning should be an experience not an ordeal.
Require Learner Participation
Describe how you are going to get each learner "actively and individually involved in the lesson. Ex: games, group work, presentations, skit, etc.
Remember that the days of sage on the stage are gone. Our role in the classroom today is one of a guide on the side and students, especially with technology connected lessons, need to experience learning. All activities should provide opportunities to manipulate the information and allow time for practice during the demonstration of the skill.
Evaluate and Revise
Describe how you will, in the future, measure whether or not the lesson objectives were met. Were the media and the instruction effective?
Evaluate student performance:
How will you determine whether or not they met the lesson's objective?
The evaluation should match the objective. Some objectives can be adequately assessed with a pen and paper test. If the objectives call for demonstrating a process, creating a product, or developing an attitude, the evaluation will frequently require observing the behavior in action.
Evaluate media components:
How will you determine the media effectiveness?
Evaluate instructor performance:
How will you determine whether or not your own performance as instructor/facilitator was effective?